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磨损腐蚀

       腐蚀环境中摩擦表面出现的材料流失现象称为磨损腐蚀,简称磨蚀。磨损腐蚀这种失效形式经常发生在泵、阀的过流部件(泵体、叶轮、密封环),管道内壁面,以及腐蚀介质中服役的摩擦副(如动密封面及轴承等零部件)中,造成磨损腐蚀损坏的流动介质可以是气体、液体或含有固体颗粒、气泡的液体等,其中以液固双相流造成的破坏尤其严重。腐蚀磨损包括与流体运动相关的冲刷腐蚀、空泡腐蚀及发生在摩擦副表面的腐蚀磨损、微动腐蚀等。

ASTM G32标准试验

       ASTM G32标准试验方法的原理是在高频振荡的试样表面上会产生空泡并破灭。它被用来评定不同材料对空泡腐蚀的相对耐蚀性。试样部分浸入试验溶液,试验装置使其产生轴向震荡,这可以通过磁致伸缩或压电传感器来实现。传感器利用震荡器或放大器驱动。试验前,试样必须经过清洗和精确称重;试验后,计算试样全部试验表面的平均磨蚀深度,并在报告中给出每个试样的累计质量损失-暴露时间和积累平均侵蚀深度-暴露时间的关系曲线。

ASTM G73标准试验

       ASTM G73标准提供了进行液滴冲击试验的指导原则。液滴冲击试验除了用于评定材料的耐蚀性,还可以用于评定液体冲击作用造成的橱窗材料光学性能的降低和涂层的破坏。ASTM G73标准主要针对转盘型磨蚀试验装置。试样附在旋转圆盘或旋转臂上,其旋转轨道内有一个或多个液体喷嘴或喷雾器,造成试验和微小液滴的不连续撞击。对于不同的材料,其试验方法会有不同程度的改变。标准中给出了结构材料和涂层的试验方法。ASTM G73标准详细地介绍了计算和表示不同材料相对耐磨蚀能力的几种方法,可分别根据失效时间、全部材料损失、磨损速度-时间关系、孕育期和最大磨蚀速率等评价材料的耐蚀性。不同材料的试验结果可通过与指定参考材料作直接比较,或与标准化的参考标度作间接比较而归一化。

机械式微动腐蚀试验

       机械式微动腐蚀试验是通过机械式微动腐蚀试验装置,产生微小振幅相对运动。机械式微动腐蚀试验装置可以为利用曲轴机构产生摆动,也可为靠偏心重块的离心力产生振荡。利用曲轴机构产生摆动这类装置通过曲柄机构使主轴获得往返旋转运动,装置简单,但传动机构中的一些零件往往也遭到微动腐蚀;靠偏心重块的离心力产生振荡这类装置由电动机通过驱动轴使偏心重块旋转,由偏心重块产生的离心力使试验-滚柱轴承受到振荡,其振荡频率通过电动机转速来控制。

电磁式微动腐蚀试验

       电磁式微动腐蚀试验装置利用一台电磁振荡发生器来产生往复运动。最常用的是电磁振动台。试样的载荷大小,通过调整倾斜机械的拉杆螺栓、使振荡发生器上仰或下倾来加以控制,并由贴在传动杆上的应变片来测定。微动腐蚀可用质量法评定,也可用表面轮廓仪记录及测量其腐蚀凹痕的尺寸。

磨损腐蚀相关技术标准

标准名称:Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus
标准编号:ASTM G32-10
发布日期:2011-02
标准概述:This test method covers the production of cavitation damage on the face of a specimen vibrated at high frequency while immersed in a liquid. The vibration induces the formation and collapse of cavities in the liquid, and the collapsing cavities produce the damage to and erosion (material loss) of the specimen.This test method specifies standard test conditions covering the diameter, vibratory amplitude and frequency of the specimen, as well as the test liquid and its container. It permits deviations from some of these conditions if properly documented, that may be appropriate for some purposes. It gives guidance on setting up a suitable apparatus and covers test and reporting procedures and precautions to be taken. It also specifies standard reference materials that must be used to verify the operation of the facility and to define the normalized erosion resistance of other test materials.

标准名称:Standard Test Method for Liquid Impingement Erosion Using Rotating Apparatus
标准编号:ASTM G73-10
发布日期:2010-05
标准概述:This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicable to metals and other structural materials. It serves, to some degree, as a tutorial on liquid impingement erosion.

标准名称:Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion
标准编号:ASTM G40-12
发布日期:2012-08
标准概述:The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance lubrication.
文献资料
 
书籍/期刊 主编/作者 出版社 出版/发表时间
腐蚀试验方法与防腐蚀检测技术 中国腐蚀与防护学会 化学工业出版社 1996年3月
腐蚀试验方法及监测技术 李久青,杜翠微 中国石化出版社 2007年5月
材料腐蚀与防护 李晓刚 中南大学出版社 2009年3月
A study on the cavitation resistance of ion-nitrided steel W.H.Huang,K.C.Chen,J.L.He Wear 2001年9月
1Cr13不锈钢微动腐蚀中腐蚀与磨损交互作用 王志刚,李久青,吴荫顺 北京科技大学学报 2000年4月
FRETTING CORROSION IN ELECTRIC CONTACTS E.M.Bock,J.H.Whitley   1974年10月
       国家材料环境腐蚀平台中心具有多年的材料磨损腐蚀研究积累和先进的试验仪器,可为用户提供包括典型材料或构件的磨损腐蚀试验及评价服务,并可以提供磨损腐蚀试验、研究咨询和相关的技术解决方案。
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